5 July 2011


Google image.com
Google image.com
While I am searching for the definition of toxin I accidentally clicked a link about a superhero in the marvel comic universe (try to search in Google and type Toxin). A character named Toxin, the third major symbiote of Spider-Man considers an ally, despite temporary alliances with Venom. Alright, before I talk about Toxin (The poisonous substance) allow me first to tell something about the other Toxin (the comic character). Toxin possesses the special abilities of his two symbiote predecessors: he can stick to walls, can change his identity to that of a completely different person, and also has unlimited webbing. Toxin can also blend in with his surroundings and become undetectable, and he can form solid weapons from his limbs, aren’t you amaze of his abilities and powers?

                Well I am quite amaze about this character,hahaha.. So before I get lost about my real intention here, to present what Toxins are and its effect in human health, let me start of presenting about the real TOXIN.

TOXINS are a poisonous substance that can be a small molecule, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing different kinds of complications on contact with or absorption by body tissues   and are produce within living cells or organisms. These are produced by numerous organisms, e.g., bacteria, fungi, algae and even plants. The word “Toxin” was first used by the organic chemist Ludwig Brieger.

     TOXIN ( The Comic Character)                 Vs          Toxin ( The Poisonous Substance)
he can stick to walls
It can stick anywhere especially to a stranger (humans)
Can change his identity to that of a completely different person.
It has different identities dependent on its origin and severity of infection.
Can blend in with his surroundings and become undetectable
Toxins are anywhere without you noticing that even in a small thing it can surely harm your health.

So now at least you already have an idea of what Toxin can do to you.

Now let us face the reality that even some plants in our garden may contain toxins that might be harmful for us. We all know that some plants are edible, tangible, and some are even for therapeutic purposes. But some are not good for our appetite because they are poisonous, cannot be touched because they might cause irritants, and cannot be used for herbal medications because it might cause adverse effects. These are the Plant Toxins.

Toxicity is not only applicable to chemicals and other poisonous objects, but also in nature most specifically for plants. Their effects are similar with that of other poisonous objects wherein it can be poisonous when eaten, can cause irritations when touched, or when smelled. The only difference is that Plant Toxins are ubiquitous, meaning they can be found anywhere. 

The link below contains some Plant Toxins found and secreted by variety of plants.

Plant toxins are like other poisons which have undesirable effects to different parts of the body:
1.       Skin, the largest organ at risk. We may experience itchiness and rashes when we come contact with the plant that contains toxins, and we can also experience numbness and some stinging sensation.

2.       Mouth, occurs when we have eaten plants (crops) that without our knowledge contains toxins. Swelling and pain will be the common consequence.

3.       The evilness of these toxins does not end in the mouth. These toxins will go all the way to our stomach that will instantly inducing vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea.

4.       Liver, that may lead to Failure, Cirrhosis, Cancer and Death.

5.       Brain is the next target if the Toxins reached into the blood stream. There will come the headaches and seizures, excitation that will eventually cause muscle weakness. Others may cause hallucinations, memory lost, confusions and paralysis.

6.       Heart and Blood vessels. First sign of plant toxins affecting the heart and blood vessels is Weakness.

           By these information’s we are all aware of what Toxins can do to our body and it harm it brings especially to our health, that even our simple plants in our garden may contain these poisonous substance may instantly harm us.

           If there are poisonous substance present in plants is there a poisonous substance also present in animals? The answer is…….Yes! There is..

                Animal Toxins are toxin resembling bacterial toxins in its antigenic properties that are found in the fluids of certain animals. One term that pops out of my mind when I hear Animal Toxins is “Venom”, which reminds me again of another comic character in the Comic Movie Spider-Man. Just like Venom ( in Spider-Man) this is an enemy for us, someone to avoid and scared of, because once it strikes us our percentage of living is severely decreased depending on the animal and the severity of the toxin it possess.

                I myself is a victim of this poisonous substance contain by animals, most common example are snakes. February 18, 2011 at around 9:30 in the evening, I went outside of our house to get something when I suddenly stepped on a round, slippery, and long object on the ground, then I felt like a cat had scratched my foot but when I looked down I saw a long snake on the ground. I was rushed to the hospital immediately then the doctor said that I was so lucky enough that the snake didn’t bit me that deep, if so I am already dead by now.
 Picture of the Snake that I stepped on...

                Animal Toxins have made a significant contribution to enhancing knowledge in human physiology and pharmacology. Information on the nature and mechanism of action of these toxins has enabled a more scientific approach to their treatment of their intoxification.

Examples of some Animals that possess Toxins and are dangerous are as follows:

  • ·         Snake Venoms
  • ·         Spider Venoms
  • ·         Scorpion Venoms
  • ·         Hymenoptera Venoms (honeybees, wasps, hornets)
  • ·         Box Jelly fish
  • ·         Colombian Frog
  • ·         Blue-ringed Octopus

              Animal Toxins produces a wide range of both physiological and pharmacological disturbances:
  •                     Disorders of function at the neuromuscular junction are of particular interest.
  •                    Most intoxification requires close monitoring and some form of intensive care.

“it is unjust that when you have done a serpent should
You gather our poisons one by one and break them down to your good”.

When someone is exposed to this kind of poison, one should know the treatment. This is not rally for the poison itself. This is a different approach to manage the said case:

  • 1.       First, when the vital signs of the patients are not normal, we have to stabilize it.

  • 2.       Second, we have to find out the history of the patient and then evaluate it based on the information we have obtained.
  • 3.       Third, when the toxin is eaten, prevent further absorption of it before it can further damage other organs.
  • 4.       Fourth, if the poison had been specified, give the patient the antidote.
  • 5.       Fifth, after preventing further absorption, hasten the elimination.
  • 6.       Sixth, give the patient medication directed to the symptoms.
  • 7.       Finally, monitor and watch out the patient.

We should watch out and be aware of every little thing that surrounds us, I’m not scaring you but let us face the reality that even a small insect or even a grass can kill us.
google image.com

14 June 2011

Anterior Pituitary Gland...

Are you not amaze of how our body balances everything?
It neutralizes every single thing for us to keep on smiling.
When something gives up, something will step up,
To prevent disease from occurring, for us to have a good living.

Now let us know who does this function,
for us to learn and even acquire some information.
Also for me to have this challenging work done,
so that my teacher will grade this as a job well done. =)


I am talking about our body's different glands,
but most specifically the Pituitary Gland.
In humans, it consists of two lobes,
the Anterior lobe and the Posterior lobe.


Anterior Pituitary Lobe, sometimes called the Adenohypophysis,
counterpart of it is the posterior lobe or Neurohypophysis.
Hormones secreted from the anterior lobe are more complex than those in the hypothalamus,
secretion of hormones happen in response to hormone reaching them from the hypothalamus.

These pituitary hormones can be tropic,
meaning their actions for another endocrine glands are specific.
Or it can also be direct effectors,
because they act directly on peripheral tissue.

Now let us talk about its hormones.
First the thyrotropin, or the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone.
It is stimulated by the arrival of thyrotropin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus,
and inhibited by the arrival of somatostatin from the hypothalamus.


But did you know that this hormone may lead to some difficulties?
One major example is the Hormone Defficiencies.
 Production of more T4 can lead to a condition called Graves disease caused by the hyperthyroidism,
or an inadequate levels of T4 that causes hypothyroidism.

Coming next is the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone,
wherein its release is triggered by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
It acts on the follicle to stimulate release of estrogens in females,
and acts on spermatogonia stimulating production of sperm in males.

Be ready because Luteinizing Hormone is next,
because  its effect depend on sex.
It stimulates secretion of progesterone in females,
and stimulates male sex hormone, testosterone, in males.

During pregnancy it prepares the breasts for future production of milk,
and after birth it promotes the synthesis of milk.
It is stimulated by TRH and repressed by estrogen and dopamine.
All these characteristics are referring to PROLACTIN.

Height does matter, whether short or tall,
this Human Growth Hormone is responsible for all.
But be mindful of its diseases,
because too much or less of it can cause differences.


Too much secretion of Growth hormone leads to Acromegaly and Gigantism,
while hyposecretion of this will leads to Dwarfism.
Having just enough of this is the key,
not too tall, not too short, well, just like me. =)


Lastly, the Adrenocorticotropic  Hormone,
which stimulates cortisol, aldosterone, and testosterone.
Again, too much of this may lead to a certain disease,
hypersecretion of ACTH is a frequent cause of Cushing's Disease.

Too much of everything is unhealthy,
because in reality it will never make you wealthy.
As well as too less of everything,
Because you will never gain anything..=) 

20 May 2011


 Well , after our Professor told us to define terms like Endocrinology, Toxicology, and Drug Testing ( actually these were our major topics in our 1st semester in CC) by making our very own blog I was a bit excited and curious as well because this is my first time to make a blog and I don't know what the blog is compose of. Anyway let us define the first one, Endocrinology, after being a Medical Technology student for about three(3) years ( 4 years in counting) the first thing that comes out of my mind are hormones and the different glands that secretes them.

Therfore, Endocrinology is one field of Clinical Chemistry that is concerned with the study
physiological function of hormones and with the cells of the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete them.

Maybe you are wondering what are Endocrine glands? What glands are participating in this so called topic(Endocrine System).  Endocrine glands are glands of the Endocrine System that secretes their product (hormones) directly in the blood.
The main Endocrine glands are as follows:
          -Pituitary gland
          - Pancreas
          - Ovaries
          - Testes
          - Thyroid gland
          - Adrenal gland

Now let us talk about the products of the Endocrine glands, Hormones. Hormones are chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism. What are the effects of these hormones in our body upon secretion?
  • stimulation or inhibition of growth
  • mood swings
  • induction or suppression of apoptosis (programmed cell death)
  • activation or inhibition of the immune system.
  • preparation of the body for a new phase of life, such as puberty, parenting, and menopause.
  • control of the reproductive cycle.
  • hunger cravings
For more understanding regarding this topic a site was linked before you, this includes the different Endocrine glands, their hormones they secretes, and the specific function of the hormones as well.



Ingestion of poisons and toxic substances from foods, plants, and elements was the first thing that came out of my mind when the term Toxicology is being mention. How did we get it, and What will be the cure or antidote will be the next question.

Toxicology came from the Greek word toxicon and logos. It is said to be the study of the adverse effects of different chemicals on living organisms.

'All substances are poisons - the difference is in the dose' - Paracelsus

The above aphorism illustrates that the potential for harm is widespread and all chemicals could be toxic but the degree of harm that a chemical can inflict on a human or any other living being depends on the dose or the degree of exposure as well as on other factors. For easier and simple understanding, the risk from a toxic hazard depends on the exposure.

How does the body handles poisons? ( this is termed Toxicokinetics), and Toxicodynamics which refers on
what poisons may do to the body.

A site was linked below to fully understand what Toxicology is all about. ( the body's defend mechanism against poison, what poisons may do to the body, and even its preventive measures.)

Drug Testing
Random Drug Testing in some schools are being implemented today, as well in workplaces and more importantly in some investigation purposes. Drug testing has many purposes why it is being perform, although I only sited some examples where it is being implemented this procedure is very much important in different aspects and situations where it is badly needed for identification and verification purposes.

Drug testing is the analysis of a specimen, biological specimen, to determine the presence or absence of drugs or their metabolites.

Some examples of drugs that are being tested are cocain, heroin, barbiturates, marijuana, shabu, etc. These drugs will surely have an effect, mostly psychological effects, that will physically harm you and other people as well. Major use of Drug Testing are to detect presence or absence of performance enhancing steroid commonly used in sports in or for drugs prohibited by laws.